Mac Music  |  Pc Music  |  440 Audio Software  |  440Forums  |  440tv  |  Zicos  |  AudioLexic

Baritone horn

From AudioLexic

Jump to: navigation, search

The Baritone Horn, or simply Baritone, is a tenor Saxhorn in B-flat, one octave below the B-flat trumpet. In the UK the baritone is found almost exclusively in brass bands. The baritone horn is also a common instrument in high school and college bands, as older baritones are often in the inventory of middle schools and high schools. However, these are generally being replaced by intermediate level euphoniums. There has long been much confusion in the[United States between true Baritones and Euphoniums, primarily due to the old practice of American Euphonium manufacturers calling their professional models by their proper names, and branding entry-level student models as baritones. Although this practice has nearly stopped, confusion persists to this day.


[edit] Confusion

There is a common misconception that all three-valve instruments are baritones and all four-valve instruments are euphoniums. This is due to the old practice of American instrument manufacturers calling their top models euphoniums and student models baritones. As noted above, this practice has nearly stopped. True baritone horns are sometimes called British-bore Baritones in the US to avoid this confusion. The differences between the baritone and the euphonium instruments are the shape of the bore and the physical size of the instrument. Although both produce partials of the B-flat harmonic series, and both have a nine-foot-long main bugle, the baritone horn has a smaller bore and a tighter wrap, and is thus physically smaller. The baritone horn is closer in relation to the trumpet or trombone which have cylindrical bores, while the euphonium is closer in nature to the cornet, flugelhorn or tuba with their conical bores.

[edit] Naming conventions

In the United Kingdom a baritone horn, most often shortened to baritone, is a bass Saxhorn in B-flat, which is also at trombone/trumpet transposition. It is generally known as a tenor horn in the United States. This B-flat instrument is one of the few saxhorns that were generally played in the nineteenth century, along with the alto range B-flat flugelhorn, and E-flat tenor horn (also called alto horn in the United States).

[edit] Tone

The baritone is a mellow instrument (in between the bright sounds of the trombone and the even more mellow tone of the euphonium); much like a tuba but in the tenor range.

[edit] Marching Baritone

Within Drum and Bugle Corps (and many Marching Bands), the instrument referred to as a baritone is a bugle in the key of B-flat that is usually played by trombonists, euphoniumists, or concert baritonists. It has 3 valves and a front-facing bell and is the tenor voice of a drum corps, below the high sopranos and altos, and above the low contras. Although it is referred to as a baritone, it bears hardly any resemblance to its concert namesake. It has a mellow tone similar to the tenor trumpet. There also exists a marching version of the euphonium; the primary differences between the two are nearly the same as their concert counterparts.

[edit] Drum and Bugle Corps

Up until 1977, baritone bugles, as with all bugles at the time, were restricted to one horizonal piston valve and one rotary valve. That year, the Drum Corps Internationa] rules congress passed a rule allowing 2 vertical piston valves. The rules were amended once more in 1989 permitting the addition of a third valve.

From the 1950's until 2000, all drum and bugle corps were required to use instruments pitched in the key of G. That year, Drum Corps International changed its rules again, allowing intruments in any key, with most other major organisations (i.e. Drum Corps Associates) following suit soon after. Since this change, the standard baritone has been the instrument pitched in B-flat.

[edit] Marching Band

Within the high school and college marching band activity, marching baritones are nearly always present to facilitate concert baritone (and sometimes euphonium) players. In some ensembles, trombones are not used, in which case baritones also provide an alternative for trombonists who can't bring their instrument onto the marching field. Since many high school baritone and euphonium players migrate from the trumpet, the instruments of choice have always been in the key of B-flat.

This article was started using a Wikipedia horn article
Personal tools