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Wagner tuba

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The Wagner tuba is a comparatively rare brass instrument that combines elements of both the French horn and the tuba. It was originally created for Richard Wagner's operatic cycle Der Ring des Nibelungen. Since then, other composers have written for it, including Anton Bruckner, Arnold Schoenberg, Richard Strauss, Igor Stravinsky, Béla Bartók, Edgard Varèse, Felix Draeseke, Ragnar Søderlind, Elisabeth Lutyens, Michael Nyman, and Stephen Caudel. The euphonium is sometimes used as a substitute when a Wagner tuba cannot be obtained.

Wagner was inspired to invent this instrument after a brief visit to Paris in 1853, when he visited the shop of Adolphe Sax, the inventor of the saxophone. Wagner wanted an instrument that could intone the Valhalla motif somberly like a trombone but with a less incisive tone like that of a horn. That effect was obtained by a conical bore (like a horn) and the use of the horn mouthpiece (tapered as opposed to a cup mouthpiece such as on a trombone). The instrument is built with rotary valves which, like those on the French horn, are played with the left hand.

The Wagner tuba nominally exists in two sizes, tenor in B-flat and bass in F, with ranges comparable to those of horns in the same pitches while being less adept at the highest notes. Several 20th-century and later manufacturers have, however, combined the two instruments into a double Wagner tuba in B-flat and F. Wagner tubas are normally written as transposing instruments, but the notation used varies considerably and is a common source of confusion—Wagner himself used three different and incompatible notations in the course of the Ring, and all three of these systems (plus some others) have been used by subsequent composers. An additional source of confusion is the fact that the instruments are invariably designated in orchestral scores simply as "tubas", leaving it sometimes unclear as to whether true tubas or Wagner tubas are intended (for example, the two tenor tubas in Janáček's Sinfonietta are sometimes wrongly assumed to be Wagner tubas).

The sound of the Wagner tuba is mellower than that of the horn and sounds more distant, yet also more focused. Bruckner generally uses them for pensive melodic passages at piano to pianissimo dynamics. They can hold their own in a forte tutti, of course, but Bruckner generally gives them sustained tones rather than melodic motifs in such passages. In Bruckner's Eighth and Ninth Symphonies, the four Wagner tubas are played by four players who alternate between playing horn and Wagner tuba, which is the same procedure Wagner used in the Ring. This change is simplified by the fact that the horn and Wagner tuba use the same mouthpiece.

Where on the orchestral score the Wagner tubas are placed depend on who plays them. If they are played by players who are also playing horn, the staves for the Wagner tubas logically go below those of the horns and above the trumpets. If they are played by players who are not also playing horn, they are placed below the trombones, above the regular tuba, which is then called a "contrabass tuba."

The name "Wagner tuba" is considered problematic, possibly incorrect, by many theorists. Kent Kennan Wheeler says they could go by just about any other name since "they are really modified horns." But since they have been called "Wagner tubas" for so long, changing to a more sensible name is unlikely.

[edit] References

  • Raymond Bryant, Anthony C. Baines, John Webb, "Wagner tuba" The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, Volume 26, ed. Stanley Sadie. London: Macmillan Publishers Limited, 2001
  • Kent Kennan Wheeler, The Technique of Orchestration

[edit] External links

This article was started using a Wikipedia tuba article
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