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List of musical instruments by Hornbostel-Sachs number

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The following is a list of musical instruments, categorized according to the Hornbostel-Sachs system by how they make sound.


[edit] 1. Idiophones

Idiophones are instruments which make sound primarily by way of the instrument itself vibrating without the use of membranes or strings.

[edit] 11. Struck idiophones

Idiophones set in motion by a percussion action, including 111. directly struck instruments, 112. indirectly strucked. With 112.1 shaken and 112.2 scraped.

[edit] 12. Plucked idiophones

Instruments set into vibration by plucking.

[edit] 13. Friction idiophones

Instruments set into vibration by rubbing.

[edit] 14. Blown idiophones

Instruments set into vibration by blowing or moving air.

[edit] 2. Membranophones

Membranophones are instruments which make sound primarily by way of a vibrating membrane. This includes all drums.

[edit] 21. Struck drums

[edit] 22. Plucked drums

Some commentators believe that instruments in this class ought instead to be regarded as chordophones (see below).

[edit] 23. Friction drums

[edit] 24. Singing membranes

Instruments in which a membrane modifies some other sound (typically the human voice) in some way (mirlitons).

[edit] 3. Chordophones

Chordophones are instruments that produce sound primarily by the vibration of a string or strings.

[edit] 31. Simple chordophones

Instruments consisting of a simple string bearer and strings - there may be an additional resonator, but removing it should not destroy the instrument (so the resonator should not be supporting the strings).

[edit] 32. Composite chordophones

Instruments in which the resonator cannot be removed without destruction of the instrument.

[edit] 4. Aerophones

Aerophones are instruments in which the vibrating air itself is the primary cause of sound. This can include a column of air being set in vibration (as in wind instruments) or an air-flow being interrupted by an edge (as in free-reeds).

[edit] 41. Free aerophones

The vibrating air is not contained within the instrument.

[edit] 412.13. Free-reed instruments

Free-reed instruments feature a reed which vibrates within a closely fitting slot (there may be an attached pipe, but it should only vibrate in sympathy with the reed, and not have an effect on the pitch - instruments of this class can be distinguished from 422.3 by the lack of finger-holes).

[edit] 413. Plosive aerophones

The sound is caused by a single compression and release of air.

[edit] 42. Non-free aerophones (wind instruments proper)

The vibrating air is contained within the instrument.

[edit] 421. Edge-blown instruments or flutes

The player makes a ribbon-shaped flow of air with his lips, or his breath is directed against an edge.

[edit] 422. Reed instruments

The player's breath is directed against a lamella or pair of lamellae which periodically interrupt the airflow and cause the air to be set in motion.

[edit] 422.1 Double reed instruments

There are two lamellae which beat against one another.

[edit] 422.111 With cylindrical bore
[edit] 422.112 With conical bore
[edit] 422.2 Single reed instruments (clarinets)

There is one lamella which beats against a solid surface.

[edit] 422.211.2 Single clarinets, cylindrical bore, with fingerholes
[edit] 422.212 Conical bore
[edit] 422.22 Sets of clarinets
[edit] 422.3

Similar to the free-reeds with a pipe attached - distinguished from them by the presence of finger-holes in the pipe.

[edit] 423. Trumpets

The player's vibrating lips set the air in motion.

[edit] 423.1 trumpets

There are no means of changing the pitch apart from the player's lips.

[edit] 423.2 Chromatic trumpets

The pitch can be changed by means of keys (423.21) a slide (423.22) or valves (423.23).

[edit] 5. Electrophones

Electrophones are instruments in which sound is generated by electrical means. While it is not officially in any published form of the Hornbostel-Sachs system, and hence, lacking proper numerical subdivisions, it is often considered a fifth main category.

[edit] External links

  Hornbostel-Sachs system of musical instrument classification  

Idiophone | Membranophone | Chordophone | Aerophone | Electrophone

List of musical instruments by Hornbostel-Sachs number

This article was started using a Wikipedia of musical instruments by Hornbostel-Sachs number article
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